If we talk about the history behind the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki means we are also talking about the latter half of World War II. Bombings that kill few people, the long-planned even before the surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, although initially there was no plan for use of the atomic bomb.
In 1945, the Pacific war that took place between the Japanese and Allied has entered the 4th year and causing about 1,250,000 deaths in the United States alone, including members of the military who were killed and injured. In December 1944, the United States experienced the greatest loss per month is 88,000 due by the German Ardennes offensive. Even so, in its own Pacific Allies back to the Philippines, Burma re-mastered, and attacked Borneo. Aggressive attack is done to reduce the military personnel belonging to the Japanese in Bougainville, New Guinea, and in the Philippines. American soldiers finally managed to land on Okinawa in April 1945 where the fighting continued until June. Action landing in Okinawa will be the first door behind the bombing of Hiroshima City and Nagasaki City.
History Behind the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
With the continued movement of Allied troops to Japan, the Japanese economy is also starting to crumble. The fleets trademarks belong to Japan in 1941 to produce 5,250,000 tons decreased to 1.56 million in March 1945 and dropped to 557,000 tonnes in August 1945. The collapse of the Japanese economy is driven by the scarcity of raw materials in mid-1944, which can be used Japan , People’s economy which is already chaotic wartime reached its lowest point in mid-1945 where the rice harvest that year was also the worst. In February 1945, Emperor Hirohito informed by Fumimaro Konoe that defeat no longer be avoided.
Before the advent of the plan that will be the start behind the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, has prepared the operation named Downfall which is an operation to invade Japan. This operation is two Olympic and Coronet where the Olympic scheduled to begin in October 1945 and the Coronet in March 1946. The unfortunate fact of the American plan is the geographical conditions of Japan that makes this plan so easily visible and Japan also made a defense plan named operation Ketsugou. This plan includes an extraordinary defense of Kyuushuu with the rest of the soldiers were slightly. By rotating through the number of troops that can be used, the total army is ready to protect their hometown is about 2.3 million inhabitants, not to mention a 28 million men and women members of the militia. The plan that has been prepared by the American failed because of the June 15, 1945, the Joint War Plans Committee to decide on a matter in which the Olympic operation will spend 130,000 and 220,000 people and possibly killed were 25,000 and 46,000 people.
Plan to attack Japan via air line has actually been set up by the Americans before the Pacific war, and was marked by the arrest of bases allies in the Western Pacific, which means there is no attack until mid 1944 when Boeing B-29 Superfortress that had long range ready for battle. B-29 itself is an evolution that was created from the operation of the Matterhorn. Regardless of the detailed planning, the operation failed due to some problems such as logistics, mechanical difficulties of the bomber, and very extreme distances to get to cities in Japan.
Haywood S. Hansell then served as a brigadier United States Air Forces (USAAF) is determined to create a base of operations B-29 in Guam, Tinian, and Saipan in the Mariana islands, who was then in the grip of Japan. The islands had finally conquered in the June to August in 1944 while operations B-29 carried out in 1944.
The new round behind the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was named the Manhattan Project, a major project of collaboration between American, British, and Canadian were each doing Tube Alloy and Chalk River Laboratories. The project led by Leslie R. Groves of the US corps insyinyur create designs and examples of the first atomic bomb. Initial research conducted in 1939 by fears that the German atomic bomb project will create atomic weapons first. Plan for the use of atomic weapons against Germany were dashed by their capitulation in May 1945, so that the target of the attack turned into Japanese.
There are two types of bombs created by researchers at Los Alamos, led by physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. Named Little Boy bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima right are weapons using uranium-235, a rare isotope of u